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21-24 Σεπτεμβρίου 2023

Ξυλόκαστρο Κορινθίας


Ανδρέας Παπανικολάου:
Εγκέφαλοι και ευφυείς μηχανές: οι δυνατότητες, τα όρια και οι επιπτώσεις των εφαρμογών της Τεχνητής Νοημοσύνης

Εν πρώτοις θα ανιχνευθεί το φάσμα των δυνατοτήτων των θεωρητικών και πρακτικών εφαρμογών της τεχνητής νοημοσύνης σήμερα και θα σχολιασθούν οι επιπτώσεις τους στην ανθρώπινη κοινωνία όπως και η αμεσότητα και η βαρύτητα του προβλήματος του ελέγχου αυτών των επιπτώσεων. Εν συνεχεία τα όρια των δυνατοτήτων της τεχνητής νοημοσύνης θα αναζητηθούν με γνώμονα εκείνα του ανθρώπινου ψυχισμού και θα αξιολογηθούν οι θεωρητικές επιπτώσεις των διαφορών στην κατανόηση της έννοιας της φυσικής νοημοσύνης και άλλων συγγενών εννοιών. Ιδιαίτερη έμφαση θα δοθεί στο νόημα της ενσυνείδητης γνώσης και γενικότερα, του ποιού κάθε ανθρώπινης εμπειρίας, στο νόημα της ριζικής καινοτομίας και στο νόημα της Ηθικής στο μέτρο που αφορούν και τον άνθρωπο και τις ευφυείς μηχανές.

Sarah Jayne Blakemore:
Adolescence as a sensitive period of social brain development

The brain has evolved to understand and interact with other people. This talk focuses on how the social brain, that is the network of brain regions involved in understanding others, develops during adolescence. Social cognitive processes involved in navigating an increasingly complex social world continue to develop throughout human adolescence. Areas of the social brain undergo significant reorganisation in terms of structure and function during the second decade of life, which possibly reflects a sensitive period for adapting to the social environment. The changes in social environment that occur during adolescence interact with increasing executive functions, heightened social sensitivity and the developing social brain to influence a number of adolescent behaviours, including risk-taking, peer influence and self-consciousness. This research suggests that adolescence represents a sensitive period of social brain development.

Emmanuel Stamatakis:
The complex relationship between the brain and consciousness

Explaining how the brain creates subjective experience is a fundamental challenge of contemporary neuroscience. The neuroscience community has only recently begun to acknowledge consciousness as a viable area of study, leading to a proliferation of research aimed at investigating consciousness through various perspectives. The approach I have adopted to study consciousness aims to understand how the brain orchestrates complex signals across spatial and temporal scales. The tools that I use are non-invasive brain imaging techniques such as MRI and pharmacological interventions which have emerged as a prominent tool for understanding the relationship between brain, cognitive function and consciousness in healthy humans. Specifically, I employ anaesthetics like propofol and psychedelics like lysergic acid diethylamide to study cognition and consciousness by reversibly altering subjective experience. Currently, the most prominent theories of consciousness postulate that anaesthetics reduce dynamics and complexity and that psychedelics create more dynamic and complex patterns of neural activity, thus moving the brain closer to a critical transition point between order and disorder. Using network neuroscience, information theory and mathematical modelling, I try to understand how these pharmacological interventions allow the brain to explore its diverse (entropic) functional landscape. Ultimately, my group’s work could help us to understand how mental phenomena emerge from the physical processes of the brain and has application for understanding normal brain function as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders.

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